28:16   Double
The piece of cloth was a cubit (18 inches) in length, and a half cubit in breadth; doubled over, so as to form a bag or pouch.

28:17   Setting of Stones
The distinguishing feature of the breastplate was that it was set with twelve precious stones, each engraved with the name of one of the tribes of Israel; the stones being arranged in gold settings in four rows, three stones in a row. Rabbi J. H. Hettz

Note: The different arrangements for the stones from different Bible sources.


KJV Sardius
Emerald
Ligure
Beryl
Topaz
Sapphire
Agate
Onyx
Carbuncle
Diamond
Amethyst
Jasper

Torah Carnelian
Turquoise
Jacinth
Beryl
Chrysolite
Sapphire
Agate
Lapis Lazuli
Emerald
Amethyst
Crystal
Jasper

LXX Sardius
Carbuncle
Ligure
Chrysolite
Topaz
Sapphire
Agate
Beryl
Smaragdus
Jasper
Amethyst
Onyx

Peshitta Sardius
Carbuncle
Jacinth
Beryl
Topaz
Sapphire
Zircon
Onyx
Emerald
Jasper
Carnelian
Jasper

Targum Carnelian
Carbuncle
Jacinth
Chrysolite
Topaz
Sapphire
Agate
Beryl
Smaragdus
Onyx
Amethyst
Jasper

Josephus Sardonyx
Carbuncle
Ligure
Chrysolite
Topaz
Jasper
Amethyst
Onyx
Emerald
Sapphire
Agate
Beryl

The Torah (Masoretic Text) states in its foot notes: 
The identity of several of these twelve stones is uncertain. 

For the sake of this study we will use the arrangements found in the King James.

The first row       East

Sardius Tribe of  Judah
Sardius means to be Red or Rosy,  to show blood in the face,  to be ruddy
Judah means to praise the Lord.
Compare breastplate with long-suffering, even in our prayer life. Let God light up the stone of His choice.
Topaz Tribe of  Issachar
Topaz conveys the ideal of a pasture. A pleasant place, satisfaction, or a dwelling place.
Its color was a rich yellow with a green tint.
Issachar means ‘to bring a reward’.
Jesus is the topaz stone that provides the pleasant place,  and as we feed on the yellow light of illumination we grow spiritually.
We find that He is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him.
He is the stone of satisfaction;
He is the living pasture.
Carbuncle Tribe of  Zebulun
Carbuncle means burning, flashing like lightning.
Lightning was a symbol of the glorious and awful majesty of the power of Jehovah.
Zebulun is a continuing city,  to enclose,  to dwell with.
This would suggest a city filled with the glory and majesty of the power of God.
Matthew 5:14-16.

The second row        South

Emerald Tribe of  Reuben
Emerald signifies a glowing and shining stone and was either red or green.
Reuben means ‘Behold ye a son’.
We need to catch a vision of the Son.
Red - Blood,    Green - Abundant life.
Sapphire Tribe of  Simeon
Sapphire was blue and ranged in different hues all the way from the bright blue to the deep blue, and also signifies stairs.
The deep blue is a symbol of deep and hidden spiritual truths and the stairs speak of ascent.
Simeon means ‘That hears and obeys’      James 4:17; 1:22
Diamond Tribe of  Gad
Diamond a stone that cuts or engraves.
Gad signifies An Army Song of Solomon 6:4,  Put on hardness as a good soldier.

The third row       West

Ligure Tribe of  Ephraim
Ligure signifies a Golden yellow like a grain of wheat.
Ephraim means ‘Doubly Fruitful.
Like a corn of wheat must die to bring forth fruit we must die to the flesh on a daily basis.
Agate Tribe of  Manasseh
Agate signifies Divided into streams or flashes, striking fire, crimson fire.
Manasseh means forgetfulness.
Forget our sins;  forgive and forget.   Philippians 3:13
Amethyst Tribe of  Benjamin
Amethyst signifies possessor and was thought to be purple.
Benjamin means son of the right hand.
Purple means royalty.
Jesus as the right hand of God signifying power and authority.
Rules and reigns in our lives.

The fourth row     North

Beryl Tribe of  Dan
Beryl means to test, to try, to investigate
Dan means to Judge.
Let Gods test and try us. His judgment is true.
Onyx Tribe of  Asher
Onyx means to blanch, to take the color out and make lustrous.
Asher means Blessedness,
Blanch the self  life. Psalms 1:1.
Jasper Tribe of  Naphtali
Jasper means to polish, prevailing power, strength and was transparent and brilliant.
Polish means to make smooth or glossy by
FRICTION.
Naphtali Naphtali means one who contends, the fighting of the enthroned one against his enemies. Enthrone Christ  -  Let Him fight against the flesh.      Galatians 5:16-18.

NOTE: This grouping of the tribes is found in Numbers Chapter 2.

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